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[pic]
[pic] ѡٮ ɫ߿߬ ᵿ

Ѽ ẫ᡿

p߬ pѡٮ p߼߬
ҡp߿ ѡ Ѽ .. ӫ

..p

PPP, PP

߫

p 1994
[pic] 681.142.2

ppἼp᡿, pѡԿpᡡ Ѭ: ߫/ ..p. . . ӫ߼. ҡ-; , 1994. 97 .
JSBN 5-230-16-955-9
ū߫ ѡ 񡫼 ߡ pѡ ߫pѼѡ
ppἼp᡿, ᡡ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡټ ի ppԬ ppἼ. Ļߴ ߡ ѻ ᬫ ի, ԫ p p὿ᵿ, ߫һԿ ߫󽴯ڿ ߫ٮ Կ
ppἼp᡿. pү p pѡԿpᡫ ѡԫ, ڿ pԿ
ᡡ Ἷ ppἼp᡿ p pᵿ ߿Ѽ.  pѬѡᡫ p ѡ ߵ "ppἼp᡿",
"ա ppἼp᡿", "ߡ pᵿ ա",
"ѽp᡿ ". PѬߴ ߻᡿ p
߻ѵѮ "p ѼԿ", "ԫԿpᡡ ߿Ѽ
pԬ pᵿ һpѡ", "ppἼ ߻ѡ ߽ѽ ԫԿpᡡ ߿Ѽ". ٻѡ p "pᵿ ߿Ѽ ա".
ߴ ѡ ᬵ-ѽ߬ ߫ ߬ ѡ ӫ߼߬ ҡ߿ ѡ Ѽ ..ӫ
Pѵѡѡ 漿p ..
JSBN 5-230-16-955-9 p߬ pѡٮ p߼߬ ҡp߿, 1994
P ԫڿ ߫ ߴ pҬ ᬫ- ٬
ppἼp᡿. ԫ, ѽ ᬽߴ ԫ, ԫ
ա ppἼp᡿. ѽ p, ᡡٮ ѻѮ
Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի ppԬ ppἼ, ߫
ԫp pҪڿ pٮ p ppԿpߴ ߫һ ῼᡡ ῼүڿ Ѭԫ. ѽp᡿ p p pἬ ԫ ѻ ᡫ ᡿Ѽ (߻ѵᵿ) Ѭԫ p p Ѭԡ p ٬ ppἼp᡿, ԫ p
Ҫ ߽޿ߴ ԫ ppἼp᡿ ᡫ ԡ ߼߽ pѫ߼߽ѡѼ իpޫ ԡ ԫ޿ߴ
Կ.
ߡ ѽ ᡡ ߫ ᬽߴ ԫ, ԫ Կ ѽ ߪԫ ᬫ p ߡ ѻ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ
ի, ppp pp pѡ ԫ
pѡ, ԫp 󫽿 󡿼ѽ ѽ pѮԿ
p ᡿ ի ѽ p Ҽѡ p὿ ppԬ pԡ ppἼ. 佴 ԫ Ѽ ߽
ѽ ߻ ߫pѼѡ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ٬ ( "ppҪѡ" ߻ѵټ Կ).  ߻Ѭ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ ի p὿ ԡ ա ҽ ppἼp᡿ ߻᡿Ѽ pp᡿ Կ, ᡿ p-ݬ߻p, p߫, ߫ppἼ ..
ԫp ٻѡ, ߽ ѽ ߡ ԫ
߫ ߽ߴ ߫ѡٮ pԿ߬ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ
pҿp᡿ ppἼ ѽѮ. ᬫ ߫ѡ ѡ, ߬
ppἼp᡿ - p pߴ ᡿.  Կ
Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի ޡ ѡ ѽ p 󻫽 ߽޿ߴ ԫ ԫ߬, pҬԿ󡫼,
ѻ ԡѡ. ġ ѯ p pѽѡ p ѼԿ߬ ߡ ếpүߴ ҿ "p
߼߽". ԫ ߻᡿ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի
Դ ߴ pټ, p - . pѡ ppἼ, pѡ ߫, pѡ ߻᡿Ѽ
ᵿ, pԫ ٬ ҽ-2. p ԫ ٬ ߡ
ԫѽ: p񿵿 ѬԿ, ԫp p ԫp, pѡ p ҽ, 󫽴 p޿p ppἼ ppԬ
p ߡ. Ѽ ҽ-2 ߴ pѽѼ pһ
"߬Ὣ", ԫp ޿p p߻ppѡ.
ū߫ pᡫ ѽ, ԫpٮ Ѭԫpٮ
ppἼp᡿ ٬, ѯѼ p pp᡿ Կ, Ѽ Դѡ ޿ pҺ p pѼ ա
ppἼp᡿, ߻߫ѡ Կ p ѼԿ߬ ppᵿ
ѽ ᡿ pҬpᵿ ԫ ߼ѡ ߽޿ߴ ԫ
߬ڿߴ pѫԿ. Կ ߽, -񿼫, ѫի ԫ ߻pԿ p, ԫp p ԫp.
ū߼p իpޫ ԡٮ p ppἼp᡿ pѺ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ - ԫ, ԫ , ٮ ҽ pԿ ޿ ߻߫Ѯ ԫ Կ.
I. P PP f PPPf
ūԿ pҬp ߫pߴ ߫ ߽ټ Ѭԫ, ڿ
ѽԡԿ, Ѽ ߫ѡټ p
(Ѯ, ݽѼѡԫ) Ѽ ߻᡿ pѽѡ ߿Ѽ p.
ppἼp᡿ ppԿp ߬ pẽѡ
߿ᵿ ѽ Կ- Ѭ pѼ . ԫ
pҬpᵿ ppἼp᡿ pԫ p ᬫ Ѭ. 髺, pҼߴ, Ѭ Ѻ p, ԫ
߽ ( p Ѻ p) , Ѯ pߴ
pҬp, p, Ѽ ߽, 󫺼. ԫp߬ pҬpᵿ ppἼp᡿ ѡ ٬
ppἼp᡿ һp󽴯ڿ pҬp - pԫp ߽ pի, p, pẽټ pἿ ԫpѡ ի .. ѽ ᬫ
pҬpᵿ ᬽ ѡ ѼԿ ѼԿ ppѼ ppἼ. ppἼp᡿ ߻᡿Ѽ pԫp Ѻ߽ pի (GO TO) ԫ Ὣ Ѫѽѽټ, ڿߴ ߿Ѽ p pҬpᵿ. Ѭԫp ٬
ppἼp᡿ ԫ pԫp ٽ ѡ, ԫ
ppἼԫ ߬ѡ ᬫ, ѬԿ, իpޫ pڿ, p Ѽ pҬp (!) ppἼ. (pѼ, p߿ Կ ٬ "ٮ" GOTO ѫᡡ
"߬p", ߼p ߯ "pҬp"). 黫߽ ߽ ѡ, ԫ pҬpᵿ - ԫ Կ
ppἼp᡿.  ppἼ, ߽Ҵ ᬫ Կ ( ߻Ҵ
GOTO), 󻫽 pҬp Ѽ, Ѻ GOTO. f٬ ppἿp᡿, ԫp ٽ ѡ һp󽴯ڿ pҬp,
὿ pټ Կ Ѽp ߫pѼѡ ٬ (٬
p ѡ, pp, FORTRAN). үڿ ừ pԿ
ѻ pҬpᵿ 󿽫 ߫᡿ ѫի񿼫Կ pҬpᵿ ᡡ. ūѡ ᬿ pҬp, ỿ߿, Ὣ ߻᡿ ٬ ppἼp᡿ ᡿ pp᡿ Կ (٬ ԫp
ѡ, pp - PL1). PԿ Կ ᡿, ppᵿ Կ p ( Ѭԫ + pᵿ ) ߻᡿ ҽ ppἼ ݬѡ pԡ Կ ᡫ ѡѼ ٬ p ѡ (Clu, ҽ-2 p.). Խѽ ߫ѡ
Կ ٬ ߴ ὿ p p pp᡿
Կ. ԫ իpޫ ԡ ա ҽ ppἼp᡿
ߡ, ԫp ѻ pp᡿
񫻫ѽ . p pү p 󫺼Կ ҽ ᡿ p-ݬ߻p. ꡬҽ
󫽴 p߼p ҽ p ppἼ Ѭԫ, ѡ
- ҽ. "ѻӫ", ѽѮ
󫺼ټ ߻᡿ Ѭԫ, pѽѡ ҽ, ,
"һpp", - ԫ ߽ ҽ ԡ ԫ ڿ
Ѭ (pp, pp), "pp" (
pѽἿ ҽ ߻ Ѭԫ). ᡿ p-ݬ߻p pҽpү "ѻѡ ppԿ" ҽ ҽ Ѽ ߻᡿ ߫үڿ Ѭpᵿ pѽѡ Ѭԫ. Լѡ ߻Ѭ pѽ ٬, ԫp ٬Ἷ,
pѡԿpᡡټ Ѭ. ᬿ ٬ ppἼ pѽߴ
p ҽѮ, ٮ ԫp ߫p pѽѡ pԡ
Կ , Ѯ ѬἿ ԫ Կ Ft pѡ Ѽ ѡ
Ѭԫ Wt. T Ft ݬ߻pԿpүߴ "һppټ ݬ߻pԫ", Wt -
"" ҽ. ᬿ pẫ, ҽ pѽߴ p
M=, ᡿ p-ݬ߻p pѽ Կ߬ Ѫҽ 󴺿. ԫ ppᵿ ҽ 񫽪ѡ p߼pߴ ppἼٮ
ݬѡ pѽѡ Ѭԫ, ߫pڿ ߯ pᵿ
Ѭ ԫ . pp, ҽ, p὿үڿ Ѭԫ
, 񫽪ѡ ߫p ᡿ pԡ Կ "ԫ" (T) Ѯ
ѬἿ (Ft), pp, ߽үڿ:

PROCEDURE Create (X,Y:CARDINAL): ;

(櫺 ԫ pἿ X,Y).

PROCEDURE Destroy (VAR T: ); (὿ ԫ ).

PROCEDURE Sm (T: ; New_X, New_Y: CARDINAL);

(pѼԿ ԫ p New_X, New_Y).

Wt ԫ pp 񫽪 p὿ ߬p ҽ ᡿, ᡡ
p὿ᵿѮ Ft. Ѽ ߽ Wt ߫᡿Ѽ
p߫ "" Ѭԫ . pp, ᡿ ", ff P P" 񫽪 ҽp p
ᬫ ѡ.
ūpѼ, ԫ ҽ ppἼٮ ݬѡ ߫p ᡿e ԫ ԫ . Ѭ ߫ߴ ҽ, ߽ Ѽ ߽ ѻp߬Ѽ ( pѡ pp -
ԫ pѼѡ ڿߴ ԫѬ). ԫ ԫѽ p
ԫ, ԫ pѼѡ ppἼ ݬѡ Ѭԫ
pѽߴ ҽ- ߫ѡ ݬ߻pԿpүߴ
pѽ. ( ҽ- pѽѡ pԡ ԫ,
pѽѡ p pҿp᡿ ԫѬ). ԫ ߼߽ ݬ߻p
pѼѡ-Ѭԫ (ԫ ppѡٮ p) 񫽪ѡ p߼pߴ
pѡ Կ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ppἼp᡿. f٬, pѡԿpᡡ Ѭ, 󽴯ߴ pѮ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ ٬. ū߽ ppүߴ ὿Ѽ ߻ѵ߬ ᡿, p὿ү ԡѡ - (Կ-Կ), ᡡ ߻᡿Ѽ ᡿ ߽᡿ , ߡᡡ
߫߬ ѽ ѡ. ߫ Ҭ ߽ 19- Ѭ pѺҽ ߿ѼԿᵿ ѡ ( pү p).
߿ѼԿᵿ ᬽ ᡫѡ ԡѡ ԡ, pp:

"Ѭ" *> "Ѻ" *> "᡺". (p ߻ߴ p "߫") "Ѭ"
ppߴ ڿ Ἷ, "Ѻ" 񫻫ѡ Կ
ԫڿ (ԡټ) Ἷ, pڿ ԫ
Ѻ, . . ᬿ pẫ, ߻ᡡٮ Ἷ ߿ "*>" Ҭ
pѡ p޿pѡ (񫻫ѡ) Ἷ. ᡿ ߽᡿ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ٬ 󫽴
߿ ᬫ ppἼ Ѽ ߻᡿ Ѭpᵿ "-
" Ѫ, ߬ pp
ߡ Ҫ ߫ᡡ ( Խѡ!) . ߻᡿ ԫ ᡿ ѻpѡ ᡫ 󫺼 p߽ѡ
pԡ Կ, ԫp ppߴ ppἼ, pѽѡ
ԡѡ -. Կ, ԫ Դ pѽѡ ᬿ
ԡѡ pѼԿ. Խѽ ߫ѡ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ٬ ᬽߴ p᡿ᵿ ῼѮ Ѭԫ ߡ "ٽ
߫ѡ". ūѡ ᬿ ᡿ ῼѮ Կ߬ pp
ѻ p᡿ᵿ ߽ѽ p߫ , ߡᡡ
p񿵿 pտѬp Ѯ. pտѬp, ᡡ
p p᡿ ppἼ ߽ѽټ ٻѡѼ 񡫼 (!)
p߫p, ߴ Ὣ p߻߫ѡ ѽp᡿ ߿ᵿ,
߬ Կ Ѭԫ ҡpү pѼѡ ѡ
߫ԫ pѺҽ ѡ ߫ѡ. PpԬ pտѬp pѡ, Ѭԡ ѻ "ѡ ߫ѡ", ѡ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ ի, ߫᡿Ѽ p߫p
pᵿ . ԫ pѼ ѡ ߫ѡ Ѫ ѬἿ ߼ѽp 񡫻p߫p իpޫ ԡ p, ߻ڿ ߬ pώѽ ٻѡ
pѼѡ ԿѮ: ߫ppἼ, p߫, ᡿pѼ ppἼ,
߫Կ ῼѮ ߻᡿ ԫ ߬pԡ-߫Կ
һpѡ. ѽ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡٮ ի ppԬ ppἼ pp
ԫ pҬpᵿ һpѡ, pҬpᵿ ᡡ. p
ԫ Կ Ѭ (ԫp p pѽѡ), p p, ߫p ᬿ-ԫ p Խ Կ pạԴ pҬpᵿ. Ѭԫ ,
pѼѡ, pp, p. ԫ pԿ󫻫ѡ
p Կ߬ Ἷ߬ ѻ p p
߼߽. Ѭ ppἼ "pߴ" "Ҽp", ѡ ߫ԫ, ߬ p, "" "p" p
Ѭ, . . ߻p ѡ ѡ p p. ū
Ѭԫ pҼ Ѭԫp pԡ Կ, pp,
"pѡ" "p ҡ"; Կ, Կpү pү ߿Ѽ
p: "ѻѡ", "ᡫ", "ԫ". ԫ Ѭ - ԫ
ڡ p ѡ, ԫpү ߻߫ ѽ , ᡿ ҿ.
Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ppἼp᡿ ppἼp᡿
ߴ ߬, ҿ p ѡ ү p. Խ
ppἼp᡿ ԫ ի p ү ὿p ԫ pҼѡԫ p὿ᵿ ޿ pѡ p p p.
II. f PPf
ūԿ Ѭԫ.- 꼼ѡԡ .- ؽѼѡ pѡ.-
pp᡿ .- p.- pѡ Ѭԫ ѡ.- 諡 Կ.- p߽ٮ Կ.- ѡٮ Կ.

Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի ppԬ ppἼ ѡpټ ߴ Կ Ѭԫ. pѽߴ
Ѭԫ, ڿ pѡ (ѡԡټ) Ἷ, pڿ
Ѭ . pѼ ߻ѵᵿ (pѽѡ) pߴ
Ѽ pѽѡ ѡԡ , ԫp ԫ p p
߫pүڿ pᬫ. pp, " ߻Ѽ" p Ѽ Ѽټ (ѡ, ެ, p p.) ߴ
߫pүڿ pᬫ . p pᬫ
ԫ ߻ߴ, pp, "p", "pѡ ѽѬ", "߻߫ ừ᡿ p" .. һ
pѽ "Ѽ".
ūԿ ߴ, ᬿ pẫ, pټ pѽѡ . ѵᵿ ᡿Ѽ ѡ ,
ԫ, pѡѽ p ᬿ ѡ ߼߽ -
᡿ ѡ ߴ ppԿ Ѭ. Ļpѽѽ
, Ѽ (߻Ѽ, p p.). Ļpѽ Ѭ (pp, ἿѮ p), 񫽪
pѽ ѡ Կ : ߻Ѽ (p):= Խ; 髺p(p):= 20.
ԫ ߻Ѭ pѽ Կ ݬѡ߿, Ѭ
- ѡ߿ Կ. p ԫp ߴ , ߫ Ѭԫ ԫp ѡߴ Ἷ p ppἼ (Ѽ pի ի,
ߴ). ѡ pѼѡ ppߴ
p pѪڿ Ѽ Ѭԫ p߽ѡѼ
(߻߬ Ѽ): p, ᡫ, p, pp.
Կ ߻߫ ᡿ ү Ѻ߿ p. ѡԡ Կѡ pѽ ߫pѽٮ
ѼԿ߬ ߻Ѭ ߻ѵᵿ . Ѭԫ Ἷѡ pѽ ߫Կٮ (pһ) ߻Ѭ . ѼԿ߬ ߻Ѭ p὿ߴ ppἼp᡿ ߻᡿Ѽ pԡ Կ, ߫Կٮ - ߡ ߻᡿ ѡ Կ. Ѻ߿ ߻Ѭԫ ᡿ ᬽߴ ԫ, ԫ
᡿ ᡫ ᡿Ѽ p. ߽ ߫pүڿ pᬫ ԫ, Ѽ ѡ
ԫ ߫ᵿ Ѭԫp p Ѭԫ (߿󫽫, ᬫ). pѡ pp Ἷ - ѡԿԫ Ѭ,
ի ߫ ѡԡ ԫ ᬫ
ѼԿ߬ Һ - ѡ Ἷ "ӫ" ӫ
"", Ἷ "ӡ" ӫ "ӡ". ߽ ߫ᵿ,
Ѽ ߫, , Ѽ ѡ ѼԿ߬
ѡ 󫺼 Ѭԫ, իԴ ԫ ԫڿ ѡ Ѽѡ.
ߴ Ѭԫ , ڿ Ἷ :
={a/P(A)}. Ѽ ԡѡ: "is-a"-"ߴ Ѭԫ " "has-a"-
" Ἷ". Կ ԡѡ ߬
"ԫ ԫ ԫ" (), ѽѮ ߿ ᡿ :

_V_ a: a is-a A(P) a has-a P(A).
( _V_ - ԫ ڡԿ).

P(A) 󬽯 ạѮ: " Ѽ "
" ߻߫ (󫺼) ѽ ԫ ". ӿ,
" ԫ" (" " ѮѼ ӫԫ "").
ạ ѡѼ (ѡѼ) ἴԿ
Ѭ ѡ . ѵᵿ ᬿ
ߴ ߻ѵᵿѮ ѡ. ġ ѽ Ẽ Կ
ἴԿ, ѫի񿼫 ѡ ѡ , ӻᵿ
(߼. ). ѵᵿ "᡿ ߻߫Դ" ߴ ҡ ߻ѵᵿѮ - ԫ ᡿ Ѯ (ӫ, ҡ),
ԫ ٻ Ѭ . ᬫ Ѯ ᬪ ߴ ѡѼ ҡ , ԫӫ ᡿ߴ ἴԿ Ѭ. ӿ, ҡ
"Կ" ѽ ߻߫ Ѭ Ӽᵿ . ġ ѡ ᬿ ԫ (߻߫) ѡ, "󫡿 ( ѽ)", "߽ ()", "ӿ
()". ѵᵿ ѡ "Կ" ᡿
ѡ (󫡿, ߽, ӿ), ҡ ߻ѵᵿ
ѽ ᡿ ߫үڿ ԫ. 软ټ ԿѼ ߻ѵᵿ ѡ ߴ Կ ݽѼѡ
ѡ. ӿ, ѡ "" ᡿ߴ Ѭԡ
ἴԿ 񡫼 ޿ ߽ (WORD) (BYTE). ƿ WORD BYTE
ԡߴߴ ӿ ޿-ӿѡԿӫᡡ ԡ Կ. ġ
ѽ ԫ Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ 󽴯 ӫἼ ү
ѽѡ ӻᵿ ѡ, ᡴߴ ᬫ
ݽѼѡ. ԡټ Կ ԡߴߴ Կ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿, ӻᵿ ԫ ѽߴ ᡿Ἷ, ӫѡټ ٬. ӿ, Կ CARDINAL, Ѭ ԫӫ ӻԿүߴ ߽, Կ INTEGER, ӻԿѼٮ ѽ ߫ ᬫ, REAL - Ѯѽ ߽ . ӫѡ ᡿ pᵿ ԡ
Կ Ẽ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ Ѭԫ ߫үڿ Կ.
ᬿ Ẽ ѽѡ ߻ѵ ҡ: SIZE
() TSIZE (). pp, TSIZE (CARDINAL) = 2 (); SIZE
(V) = 2 () / V is-a CARDINAL. ( / ٻ ӫ
߽). ạ ὿ᵿ ߿ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿
ѡ Ѭԫ ԫ ԡ Կ ߻ߴ ạ ݽѼѡ ѡ. ӿ, TSIZE (ADDRESS) =
2() 16-Ӵ񡫮 ٬ ҽ-2 (὿ᵿ -4),
ԫ Ѽ TSIZE (ADDRESS) = 4 ߿ ԫ ٬ ӿ
὿ᵿ Կ IBM PC.
ԡٮ Կ ҿߴ ѽѼ ߡ ӫ᡿
ԡ Կ. ᬫ ӫ᡿ ᡫ ѡѼ ߬
Ѭ ߿Ѽ ߫pүڿ pᬫ, ѽڿ ٮ
. ӫ᡿ ὿ ԡѡ "߫ԫ " (con-of). ӿ,
ԡѡ A con-of (B,C), ,, - , ὿ᡫ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ѬᵿѮ, ᡡ ѽѡѼ իӫޫ ԡ Կ ỿ߿:

TYPE A=RECORD

: B;

: C

END
ᬿ ẫ, ỿ - ԫ , ߫ѡٮ ạӫ .
ӫ᡿ ӫ ᡫ ߻᡿Ѽ Կ ߿. ӿ, Ѭᵿ

TYPE A = ARRAY [1:3] OF B
ѽ con-of(B,B,B). Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ- ѽߴ ӫټ Ҽӫ᡿Ѽ Ẽӫ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ
ѡ, ߽ ӿ:
TSIZE (A) = 6 / TSIZE(B)=2. ѵᵿ ѡԡ Կ " ߻߫" (߻ѵᵿ ԫ, Ѯ) ߻᡿Ѽ ߫ ạԿ ӫ᡿ - pѽѡѼ ߿, p὿Ѽ ӫӡټ
ԿἿ. ūԿ ߿ ᡫ ߫һ ᵿ (Ѯ),
ӫ Ѭԫ. ԫ ѡ Ҽ "߿"
Ѭ - Ѯ ӫߴ . ӿ, Ѭ 鬽 ٬. Ӵ ӫԿ󫻫
ԫ ѡ (ѫӿ ԫӫ, ٬ ), ߫ ԫӫ Ѭ
߻߫ѡ ӫ Ѯ (Կѡ), ԫ ߽ ߿ - ԫ
߫һ ߻߫Ѯ. 佴 pѽѡ ߿ ߻үߴ ӫӡ Կ. Ѽ ߽
ӫӡٮ Կ ѽ:

- 󫺼 Ѯ;

- Ѭԫ, ԫټ

ӫѡ Կ Ѯ. ӿ, ߻ѵᵿ

TYPE DST = PROCEDURE (VAR )
ѽ 󫺼 Ѯ ѬἿ .
ӫ, ᡡ ӫἡ ҽ ѯ Ӽ
߫ڿ ѬᵿѮ DST, ߼ӿߴ Ѭ DST. ӿ, Ѯ "󬽯" "٬" ߼ӿߴ
ݽѼѡ DST ԫ ӿ ߽, ԫ ӫ, ڿ
Կ Ѯ, ѽѡ ߽үѼ :

PROCEDURE 鬽 (VAR S: );

PROCEDURE ٬ (VAR S: );.

Ӽ ߿ ԡ߿ߴ ѼԿ, ӫἿӫ᡿ ߻ߴ
߿ Կ Ѯ (ԫ). ҽ-2
ԡٮ ӫӡٮ Կ, ѬἿ ԫӫ 󽴯ߴ ӫ Ѻ
ӫ:

YPE PROC = PROCEDURE (); .

ؽѼѡ ѡ ᬿ Ѭԫ ӿүߴ ԡѡѼ TSIZE (PROC) =
TSIZE (ADDRESS), .. Ѭԫ ԫ ԡ ӫӡ
Կ ߻үߴ ի ߫үڿ ӫ (ԫ ߬
- Կᵿ ӫ). ԫ ԡѡ ߻p pp
Կ. ԫ ߼߽ ߻ѵᵿ ѡ ԫ Ѽ Խߴ
߻ѵᵿ ѡ ѻӫӡ ߫. ݽѼѡ ѡ, ᡡ ѽѡټ ߫, ᡿ߴ
ѡ Ѭ ԫ . ᬫ ѡ ߴ ѡ, ỿټ ݽѼѡ ѡ.
᡿ѡ Ӵ񡫮 Ԭ ( ᡿ѡ)
ߴ ټ ѡ. ӿ, ,
ӿѼ Կ CARDINAL, ѡ 2n ẽټ ѡ ѽ, n - Ӵ . 佴 16-Ӵ
߽ ԫ ߻Ѭ ѡ 󬽯 ߽ 0 216 - 1 = 65
535. , ppѼ Կ CHAR (), ѡ
28 = 256 ẽټ ߿Ἷ ( ASCII p߬ ߿󫽫),
߬ ݽѼѡ ѡ ᬫ Ẽ : TSIZE
(CHAR) = 1. ѡ, ԫӫ , ӿѼ Ѽ ټ Կ, ߴ ԫ ԫ Կ. , ӿ, 'A' -
Կ CHAR, 177 - Կ CARDINAL INTEGER. ū߬ Կ , ᡫ Ӵټ
߽ѡѼ. ԫ ߼߽ Կ, ὿Ѽٮ , ߴ
߽ Կ. ᬫ, ߬ Ӵ ٮ
߽, ӿ, 216 ẽ ѡ Կ, Ҽ ѡ ᬫ ߽ѡ ٽ ᡿ ӫἼ ԡٮ
ԡٮ Կ CARDINAL. 佴 ᡿ѡ ѡ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ߻үߴ Ѽ Ѻ Կ -
һӴѡ 񼡫 ԡ
ԡ Կ. Ѭ ߫ ᪡ ԼԿ, ԫ ѡ Ѭ ѡ ߬ҿӫᡫ Ѽ ѡ᡿ Կ. 佴
὿ᵿ ԫ 󫺼Կ ߻ߴ ߽ѡ, ӿ:

TYPE =(, , , , 櫽, , ); .

ѡ Ѭ ᡿ߴ ߻᡿Ѽ Ѽ
. ū߬ ѡ ᬿ ạ ӫἼ, ѡ᡿ ߫Ӫ ݽѼѡ pӫ᡿ Կ. ᡿ѡټ ߻Ѭӫ ѡ ߬ҿӫ ٮ
Ѭԫ ޿ӫ ߻Ѭӫ. ᬫ ҿӫ᡿ ếߴ
ѡ ҽ ѫӿ , ߫ ԫټ Ѭԫ 񼡫. , ӿ, ߻Ҵ
ѽѡٮ Կ "", ߬ҿӫ "Ǭ",
ݽѼѡἿ ԫӫ ߴ ẽ ᵿ . 佴 ԫ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ߻ߴ ѡٮ Կ, ѽѼٮ
ߡ ẫ ߽ Կ:

TYPE Ǭ = SET OF ; .

"Ǭ" 󬽯 Ҫ 7, 27 Ѭԫ, ѡ
ԫ ѽߴ ѡټ Ἷ. :
{ } -"" "";
{ , } -ᬬ, ߫ѡٮ ;
{ .. } -ᬬ, 󬽯ڿ ߯ ;
{} - ᬬ "᡿", ߫Ӫڿ 񡫮 .
ؽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ "Ǭ" 񫽪ѡ ߬ Ẽѡ Ѽ 27
ẽ ѡ, ߽ѽ, ټ Ѽټ ݽѼѡԫ,
ӿټ ѡ ᬬ, ߴ :

TSIZE(Ǭ) =1.
Ѭ ẫ () ԫ ӿ ᬪ Ẽߴ
񡫼 , ߼Ӵ ԫ, ԫ ߻ߴ ѡ
3 . ѡٮ Կ, ӫѡٮ ߡ Ѻ Կ [0..15],
ԡٮ Կ

BITSET = SET OF [0..15]. Կ, ԫ TSIZE(BITSET)=2 (). Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ
ѡ Կ ѽߴ ѡѼ

N DIV 8 +(N MOD 8) DIV (N MOD 8). N - ߽ ẫ Կ, MOD DIV - ᵿ ߫ѡ ѽѡ ҽ ѽ (񻫽ߴ, ԫ 0 DIV 0 = 0). Կ߬ Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ ѡ Կ ѽߴ Ѽ, ԫ ѡ Ѭ ᬫ Կ ߻ߴ
ӿԿ߬ ҡ . ӿ, ѡ ᬬp
{,,} ߽үڿ ẫ:

櫽 P

+--+--+--+----+--+--+--+--+ (7-

| ?| 1| 0| 0| 0| 1| 0| 1| ߻ߴ)

+--+--+--+----+--+--+--+--+

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ѬἿ ѡ Կ ѽѡ ҡ, ᡡ
ݽѼѡӡټ ᵿ Ἷ (ѡ, ѡ,
ạ, ߿ӿ߬ ạ); ӫӬ ߫ԫ (
ӿԿ߬ ҡ); 󬽯ѡѼ/߬ѡѼ ẫ Ѭԫ .. ūӫ ԫ ӫ Ҭ ٬
ӫἼӫ᡿. ߻᡿ ӿԿ߬ ҡ ѡ Ѭԫ ѡ Կ 󫽴 ᡿ ѬԿү ᬿ
ѬἿ ӫ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ.
III. f ѡԿᵿ ѡ᡿Ѽ.- ὿ѡ.- ᡵ һ.- Ļpԫp
p߫ѡ.- Ѭ߿p᡿.- ѡԿᵿ Ҭ᡿Ѽ.- ٮ
p᡿ѡٮ Ҭѽ.- ƿ ADDRESS.- ὿ѡ ߫ "^".

ѡԿᵿ Ѭ ᬽߴ ѽѡ (իѡ) ݽѼѡ
ѡ ѡ һ ѡ Ѭ - ѡ
. ߡ ߻߫ ѡԿᵿ Ѭ: ѡ᡿
Ҭ᡿. ѡ᡿ ᬽߴ ạѡ Ѭ ѽѡ ѡ.
ᬫ ạѡ ӫߴ ߽, ӫ ٻѡ
ӫἼ Ѭ ѿѡ. ӿ, Ѭᵿ

VAR A,B: Ѭ
ѽ ὿ ӫἼ Ѭԫ ѡἿ B
߫ѡ, ٮ ԫ ٮ ݽѼѡ ѡ.
Կߴ Ѭ ѡ Ѫ, ԫ " ߽޿"
󫺼, 󫺼 ᵿ " Ѭ ټ ѡѼ ". 꼴 - ԫ ӿ ӫἼ, ߻ڿ ߿ᵿ һ
񡫼 ԫ Ѭ. ūԿ "" ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ߻ߴ ߿ Կ "ѡԿԫ". ԫ ߼߽ ӫ
ӫἼӫ᡿ ٻѡ ӫἼ ߴ ӫ߫ ѡѡ ԫ
ѡ Ѭԫ, ѡԿᵿ. ѡߴ ѽ Ѭԫ-ԫ. ԫ ߽
ᬿ ѡ ὿ӫᡡټ ѡԿԫἿ - ὿ѡἿ,
὿ү ᡵٮ һ Ѭ. ӿ,

TYPE Ѭ = RECORD

B : _ӫѡ; : B

END;

VAR A,B : OѬ; . ὿ѡ A.B Ԭӫ һ ӫѡ Ѭ A, B.B -
ӫѡ Ѭ B .. 使 ᡵ һ ѽߴ
ӫѮ ӫ᡿ Ѭԫ . ԫ ӿ 使=1. ߽
ԫ _ɫѡ:

TYPE _ӫѡ = RECORD : ; : ߴ; : ѡ

END;
ԫ ὿ѡ, Ԭڿ һ ӫѡ Ѭ , 񽿡 ᡵ, ү 2: ... ӫԫ ѡԿԫ ߼ӿ ԡٮ ߽ ὿ѡ ҽ ᡵѮ һ. ᡵٮ һ ѡ ѽ Ѽ ѡԿᵿ pԫ Ѭ, ԫp pᡴߴ ѡ . 櫬Կ ԫ Ѽ ߻Ҵ ԫ ӿ߫ѡ

WITH < ὿ѡ > DO < ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ > END.

ᬫ ԫ ߫ 񽿡 ᡵ һ p Ѭ, ѡԿpѼ pѺ . ߽ ߽ ᬿ pԫ
p߫񿡴Ѽ pѡ ѽ, ԫ ߻᡿ pԫp p߫ѡ ѡ ߫pԿ pѼ ٻѡ ԫ pѡ ppἼ. 齫ѡ ԫӫ ӿ߫ѡ ߻ 񫻫ѽ ߫ѡ ᡵ һ. ӿ, Ѽѡ VAR A: Ѭ, ԫ ߽үڿ ẫ:
WITH A DO

;

WITH B DO

END
END. ѡ Ѭԫ ӫ . ԫ ᡫ
Ѽ, ԫ Ѭᵿ ӫߴ ѽ TYPE (Կ), ѡ᡿
Ѭԫ - ѽ VAR (Ѽѡ).
߽ԫ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿, ѽ TYPE VAR,
"߼ӿ" "ޡ" ԫ, ԫ ѡ ӫ ѡ Ѭԫ - ԫ ӿ ạ Կ. Ѽ ԫ WITH Ӽ ߬ ߼޿᡿ ᬿ Կ
(߼. ӿѡٮ ӿ: ٮ WITH ӿ߫񿡴 Ѭ, ԫӫ
). ᬫ ߼޿᡿ Ѽ ߽ ѡ 󡿼᡿ ӿ ӫἼӫ᡿ ӿ߫񿡴Ѽ ѡԫ. ӿ,

VAR A,B: Ѭ; C: ;

BEGIN . . .

+- WITH A DO

(1) | WITH B DO C:= END; B.B.:=C

+- END . . .

+- WITH A DO

(2) | WITH B DO C:=; B.:=C END

+- END . . .

+- WITH A DO

| WITH B DO C:= END

| END;

(3) |

| WITH B DO

| WITH B DO :=C END

+- END.

ӿ ѡ ߽ү ѽ : ѡ Ӽᵿ
ӫѡ Ѭԫ . ٮ ѡ Կ ԫ ѽ, ԫӫ -
. ūѼ ? Ѽ ѡ ӿ Ѭ ᬫ ԫ
"WITH B" ὿ү ẽ ӿ߫ѡ, ߴڿ Ѭ. ᬿ? 佴 ԫ, ԫ Ѫ 󫺼 ѼԿ߬ ޿, ߽ѡ
ᬫ Ѭԡ ߿ pԫp p߫ѡ, ߽ ߻ ὿ѡ ( ѬԿ ӫἼ),
ӫ᡿ ѡ Ѭԫ pԫ (). ū߽ ԡѡ Կѽ.
ӿ ߿Ἷ Ѭԫ () ߿Ἷ ӫ ѡԿᵿ ߴ ߡ Ѭ߿p᡿ (Ҽᵿ). Ѭ
ѽ Ӵٮ Ѭ ( ) ٻ ӫ
ԫѡ ѡ ѡ . ѡ, ԫѡ Ѭ߫, -
ѪѼ ߴ ѡἿ ( ԫ ߼߽ Ѭ Ӽ
߼ӿ "߫ү " ߿ ӫ, үѮ ). ᡿, ѽᡡ ԡ߿ѽ ӫ᡿ ѡ Ѭԫ
, ӿ ѡ ӿѡѽ ѡ᡿ Ѭ߿ӫ᡿Ѽ. һ Ѭ, ѡԿpѼ ѡѼ, ԫp ԫѡ Ѭ߫, p὿ߴ ߡ ߽ѡ p ߫ү ݽѼѡ pѡ.
pԿ߬ pѡ, p὿ү ᬫ ߽ѡ, ߻ Ѭ
p ߽. ᡿ - ԫӫ ߡ󡫮 ߻߫ ѡԿᵿ - ᡫ ߻᡿Ѽ
߫ Ѭԫ, ѡ ԫ ᡿ߴ "ѽ",
Ҭ ѡԿѼٮ Ѭ. ᬫ ߫ٮ Ѭ ߴ
ҬѽѼ ٽ. ѽ Ѭ-Ҭѽ Ҭ
Ѭ, ԫ ߽ Ѭ-Ҭѽ, "Ἣ ", " "
( Ҭ ᬫ Ѭ). ѽ, ԫٮ Ҭ
Ѭ ẽ ߫, ߴ ټ ҬѽѼ. ѽ,
ԫٮ Ҭ ԫ Ѭ ѽѡ , ߴ
᡿ѡټ ҬѽѼ. ٮ Ҭѽ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ὿ߴ Կ ADDRESS. 諡Ἷ ԫ Կ 󽴯ߴ ӫ ἴԿ .
߫ ԫ ߴ , Ѽ ߽ NIL
ѽ Ҭѽ, ԫٮ Ҭ.
᡿ѡٮ Ҭѽ ѽߴ ẫ "POINTER TO", ӿ:

TYPE ѽ = POINTER TO Ѭ;.

Ѭᵿ ѽ ҬѽѮ, ԫ Ҭ ԫ
Ѭ Ѭ. ԫ ߼߽ ٮ Ҭѽ
ѽ Ӽ ߽үڿ ẫ:

TYPE ADDRESS = POINTER TO WORD. ᡡ ߿ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿

TSIZE (ADDRESS) = TSIZE (WORD) = 2 ().
p ԫ Ẽ ӫ ߫, ѽѼٮ ڡ Կ ADDRESS, ߫󽴽 16-Ӵ 216 =
65536 = 64*1024 = 64K. Ѽѡ ޿ӿ ߡ ӫ
( Ἤ ԫ ӴԿ ) ӿѽ ߿ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ѽѡ Ẽ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ ߫ 2
:
TSIZE (ADDRESS) = TSIZE (ARRAY[1..2] OF WORD) = 4 ().
ӿ ԫ ADDRESS ӻԿӫߴ Ҭ:

TYPE ADDRESS = RECORD

SEGMENT, OFFSET: CARDINAL;

END; ߻᡿ ԫӫ Կ߬ ߡᡫ Ѭߡ ѡԿᵿ
Ѭ. SEGMENT ѽ ѡ ӫ ߫,
ԫѼ ߼ѡѼ (OFFSET), ԫӫ ᡿ߴ "ԫ"
ѡ ѡ ѡԿѼ Ѭ. Ѭ-Ҭѽ (ٮ ᡿ѡٮ) ѡԿߴ ѡѼ, Ѭӿӫᡡټ ӫἼ. ѡ Ҭѽ, ߫ᡴѼ ""
Կ ѡѼ, ѡԿ Ѭ (Ҭ
). ѡԿᵿ ӫ ѡ 󫽴 Ἷ߬ (
ӫ ٻѡ ӫἼ) ѡ "ѡ ѽ" Ҭѽ
߫ѡ ѡԿӫ ẽ Ѭ. "ԫ" ѡ᡿ ᬿ 󫺼Ѯ. 쿪 ӿѡ ߬ ᵿ ٽ ѡԿᵿ Ѭԫ ҬѽѼ " ѡ" P.

TYPE : ... ; VAR P: POINTER TO ;

ؽѼѡ xѡ Ҭѽ

+-----------------------------+ 꼴: P | ѡ Ҭѽ *--+---+ (P=NIL)

+--------------------------+--+ v

+---+-----+--------+----+ -+-

| | | -+-

| | | |

+--v---+-----+--------+-------+

| +++ | | v | +-+ Ѭ

| +-+ v v | +-+ p

| +++ +++ |

| +-+ +-+ | Ѭ

| | Pԫ

| P pp ἴԿ |

+-----------------------------+

ѡ ѽ, ѽѼ 󫺼ټ ѡ Ҭѽ P,
Ԭ һ Ѭ . ѡ ѽ,
ҬѮ "pԫ", P, Ѭӿӫᡡ POINTER TO , ߴ Կټ, ѽ P=NIL ԫ Ҭ. ѡԿᵿ Ѭԫ Ѻ ٽ Ԭ 󫺼Կ ᡿ᵿ Ἷ߬ Ѽ ᡡ pҬp. Ѭ, ԫ
ҿүߴ ᬿ Ҭ, 񫽪 " 󴺿 ѬἿ", ԫp ߻ѵpߴ Ҭѽ. ӿ,

TYPE ؽѼѡ_ = RECORD

A : ;

B : POINTER TO ؽѼѡ_

END. 쿪 ӿѡ ߬ ᵿ 񡫮 ᡡ pҬp -
pҬp 諽, ߫ѡ ᬿ ݽѼѡԫ.

+--------+ +----------+

| v v P | v

| +---+---+ +---+---+ | +---+---+

| | A | | A | | | A |

| |-------+ +-------| | +-------|

| | B *-+-------->+ B *-+-----+ | B * |

| +-------+ +-------+ +---+---+

| |

+-----------------------------------------------+

VAR P: POINTER TO ؽѼѡ_

ԫ ᵿ ѡٮ Ҭѽ P ߽ѽ ( ѡ
ѽ Ѯ) Ԭ һ Ѽ ݽѼѡ pҬp 諽. Կ, ԫ ԫ ᵿ ( Խ Ѯ) ݽѼѡ ѡ
Ҭѽ P Ҫ ѡ. ӫԫ Ӵ ߫ pѽ pѡ
Ҭѽ - ԫ ٮ ӿѼ ߬ ᵿ pѡ
ᡡ Ҭ. ӿѡ ѡ Ҭѽ ߬ ӻԿߴ ѡѡ ѡ ߫үѮ ѽ (ᡫ, 󿪬
Ҭѽ Ѭ). һ Ѭ Ѻ Ҭѽ Ԭߴ
Ѽ ѡ᡿ Ҭѽ ߫ "^". , ӿѡ
ӿ һ Ѭ Ѻ P: POINTER TO
ؽѼѡ_ ѫի񿼫 ߻ ὿ѡ P^.A. Ѽ
"޿ӫ" ߽ү ߽ѽ һ:
P - һ Ҭѽ, ѡԿүѼ ؽѼѡ_;
P^ - һ Ҭ ؽѼѡ, ԫү Ҭ P;
P^. - һ p (ѡ) ԫ Ҭ;
P^.A - һ p . ٮ ὿ѡԫ Ԭ һ "Ѽ" ҡ
Ѭ ( p). p Կ, ԫ ԫ ӿ ( Ѽ
߽)

SIZE (P) # SIZE (P^) # SIZE (P^.A). Կ, Ѽ SIZE (P^) ԫ pp?
P "^" (ѽ) ᬽߴ "ԬԿ" һ Ѭ Ѻ ѡ ҬѮ ٽ. ꡫ pᵿ pạ
"p߬pԿѼ ٽ". ߻ ߿ "^" ѡ
Ѭ, ԫٮ ߴ ҬѽѼ, Ѽ ߽ Կ. ߻᡿ ὿ѡԫ ߿󫽫 "^" ԫ ӿ߫ѡ
ӫߴ ߡ󡫼 , Ҫ ٽ ᡫ ӿѡѽ ӫᡡټ Ҭ. ߽ , ԫ ӿ߫ѡ
ѽ߫pạ ԫѬ pѡ:
1) ߫ѡ ᡵ һ ѡ ӫᡡ Ҭ;
2) ѡ Կ, pếѽԿ pҬpԿ ppἼ. 佴 ߽ P: POINTER TO ؽѼѡ_ ߻᡿ ԫ

WITH P^ DO < ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ > END p὿ p߫ѡ ؽѼѡ_p, pẼѡ ἴԿ "" P, ԫ

WITH P DO < ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ > END p὿ p߫ѡ ԫ (!) p Ἣ Ҭѽ
(.. SEGMENT OFFSET) ᬫ ߼߽
p߫ѡ ؽѼѡ_p. ԫ 󴺿 ᬪ ԼԿ, ԫ
ӿ߫ѡ, Ѭӿӫᡡ ߫үڿ ԫӫ WITH, ٻߴ
߽ ԫ, ѽѡ ѡ ӿ߫񿡴 ὿ѡ, ..
"ի" ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ. ūԫ ѡѡ ѡ
p߫񿡴 Ҭѽ ӿ ӿ߫񿡴Ѽ ѡ ѡ Ҫ
߫ᡡ ӿ߫ѡ ѿѪ p޿ ٻѡ ԫ pѡ. pѼ pp:

VAR P: POINTER TO ;

BEGIN ... P:= ...; (* ᡫ P *)

WITH P^ DO ...

(* ԫ, ԫٮ Ҭ P *);

P:= ...; (* ᡫ P ٮ *)

... (* ټ ԫ *)

END.

ԫ ӿ ᡫ P " ٮ " ӿ ѡѡ Ҫ
߫ᡡ ӿ߫ѡ ߫ѡ " ټ ԫ" Ѻ
Ҭӫѡ ѡԿԫ ߫ԫߴ - ԫ ѡ ӫ񫽪 ߫
"ټ" ԫ. Ѻ᡿ ԫ ԫѽ ߽Ҫ ԫ ѡԿѼ ޿, 󫺡ڿ ԫ p ѡԿᵿ
Ѭԫ ԫ Ҭ᡿. ѽ Ҭѽ ѡԿᵿ ӿ Խߴ ѡ᡿
Ѽ, ԫ ߻ ߻ѵ ѡԿүڿ Ѭ - Ҭѽ
( ٽ), ԫټ ټ "ټ"
ѬἿ. ԫ ѡ ޿Ӵ 󫺼Կ "ԫ" ѡ᡿
󫽴 ὿ Ἷ߬ү ѡԿᵿ ẽ Ѭԫ Ѻ
ԫ Ҭѽ, ѡԿѼٮ ѡټ ӿѡټ Ѽ ѡѼ.
IV. PPf
ū. - Կ Կ. - ҡ ѫẫ᡿ ӿѡ
Կ. - ỿ߿ ӿἿ. - ߽᡿ . - Ļѽѡ "
ὫѡѼ ". - ἫӻԿѼٮ Ѭ.

Ӽ "ӻᵿ" ѽ "ӿ᡿" Ѭ ѽѡ
ѼԿ߬, ߼߽ . ӿ, ߿ "I", ӻԿѼٮ
"ɿ߬_", ߫pߴ Ѭԫ ѽѡ ߿Ѽ
߽ѡ, ӿѼ ߫ټ Ἷ ԫ ߿Ѽ. ԫ Ѽ "I" "" Կ߬ ӿߴ
߫ѡ Ἷ. "I" Ҭ ߬
߫ѡ , ԡԿ, ѽ ߫ ӫѡ "",
Ҭ Ѽѵ ᬿ . ѡ ӻᵿ ԫ Ѭ ԿѼ
. pѡѼ ӻᵿ Ѭԫ
ὬѼߴ Ҭ - ԫ
pԫ (ẫ Ҭ) ѽ ߻᡿ Ѭ
(߻ .ѡ "ӿ ڿ", ٮ ӫ ӻԿӫ ѡү ߬᡿
ի), , ᬫѵ, ԡ ӻԫ: -
ԫ ӫ - ԫ , -ԫ ޿. ӫἼӫ᡿ Ѭ ᡡ ѽߴ ԿѼ
ݽѼѡ ѡ, Ҫ ߻ᡡټ ڿ . ἴԿ ݽѼѡ ѡ ߫Ӫ ߽ѽ ҽѮ
񿡿, ӻᵿ ԫ ߽ѽԿ Ѭ ߿ ӫἼ. 髻ӫ ԫ, Ѻ ᬿ "" (, ߬) ߼ӿ ݽѼѡ ѡ. ԫ ߼߽ Կ ԡ Կ
ӫἼӫ᡿ ٻ ӫ ᬿ (, ߬).  Կ ѽ 󫺼 ӻᵿ Ѭ.
ԫ ٬ 3- ѡ ߡټ ߴ Կ ߫ԿԿ
Կ. ߼ӿѼ ߻Ѭ ᬫ ߫ԿԿ: ߫Կ
ѡ (ѡ) Ѭ ἴԿ ߫Կ ߫ѡ ӻᵿ. Կ ѡ ѽߴ ẼἿ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ. ӿ, ߽ Ѭ Կ CARDINAL ᡴߴ 񡫼 ޿ ߽ (2 ) Ѭ Կ INTEGER ᡴߴ 񡫼 ߽, ԫ INTEGER CARDINAL
߫Կ ѡ (Ѫ ߫ ޿ټ Կ WORD).
AὫ ߫Կ ѡ CHAR BYTE; WORD ARRAY [1..2] OF
BYTE .. Կ ӻᵿ ѽߴ 󫺼 ߻
Ѭ Ѭ . ӿ,
󿽬. ӫἼӫ᡿ ߫Կ ӻᵿ
ߴ 󫺼 ӿ᡿ Ѭ ѡ
Ѭ ߴ ߫Կ ӿ᡿. ӿ
ᬫ ߫ԿԿ:

VAR A: CARDINAL; B: INTEGER; BEGIN ... A:=B . Կ ӿ᡿ Ҽ ߫Կ
ѡ Ѭԫ.
ūԿ ߫ԿԿ Կ ߽ ѽ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿
"ӫ" "ӫ". һ ٬ 󿽫 ߴ
󫺼 Ӵ ߻᡿ Ѭԫ ạ ߫ 񡫼 ѡ. ᬫ ѡ ѫի񿼫 ҿӫ ߡ ߻ѵ ҡ ѫẫ᡿ Կ, ӿѡ Կ ߻ѵ ԫ
߫ѡ Կ. Ҽߴ, "ѻѡ ӫԿ" ٬ - Կ
߽, ߿ ү ߬ѡ ԫ .
"ӫ" ٬ 󽴯 ӫἼ ү ӻᵿ
Ѭԫ: 񡫼 ѡ "߼޿" ߫ԡ ẽ Ѭ,
ӿ ԫ, Ҽߴ, "ѡ" ԫ, Ѽ ӿ ᬫ
߼ѡ, ߴ ѽ. Ѭԡ-ӿѡԿӫᡡٮ Կ
ӫἼӫ᡿ Ѻ߽ ѡ "ӫ" ٬
ټ Ἷ ӫ ߫ԿԿ Կ, ԫ Ѽ ߽
Ѫ ߫Ѽ ӫἼ, իԴ 󫿼
"ӫԴ" Ѭԫ "ԡټ" ӫἼ. ҡ ѫẫ᡿ ӿѡ Կ ὿ү 󫺼Կ ߫ѡ
ӿ᡿. ӿ ԫ ᡿ ᬫ ߫ѡ ѫẫ᡿
ӿѡ ߴ ߫ѡ ẽټ. ӿѡ Կ ᡫ
ᬿ- ѫẫ᡿Ѽ ߫ү ѡ ݽѼѡ ѡ.
ᬫ ѡ ӫԫ "ߴ " - ӿߴ
Ѽѡ Կ. 佴 ὿ᵿ ӿѡ Կ ѫի
߫Կ ѡ ߫үڿ ݽѼѡԫ. ӿ:

VAR A: INTEGER; B: CARDINAL;

BEGIN A:=-3; B:= CARDINAL (A); ...

CARDINAL() ߻ߴ ҡ ӿѡ ѡ Կ
CARDINAL. ᬿ ѡ ߻ߴ ῼѡ᡿ ẫ ޿-ӿѡԿӫᡡ Կ. ӿ ߻᡿ ҡ ӿѡ Կ
ӫἼ 񫽪ѡ իӫޫ ѡ Ѭԫ
"ѫᡡԿ" ӻᵿ . (ӿ, ԫ
ӿ "-", Ѽٮ 񿡿Ѯ 15- Ӵ ݽѼѡ ѡ A, B ӻԿӫߴ 215. 櫫ѡ ߽ ӿѡ B =
215 + 21 + 20 = 32771). Կ߬ ҡ ӿѡ Կ ҡ
߼߽ 󽴯ߴ. ߻᡿ ߽ ٬ (ᬿ
CARDINAL, BOOLEAN, INTEGER ..), ѽڿ ѡ ẫ Կ,
Ѭ BEGIN ... END ѫի񿼫 ߽ԫ ԫ ӫ
ѬԡԿ ѡ, ߫ѡ Ѭԫ ẽ Կ.
ѫẫ᡿ Կ ԫ ߼߽ - ӫԿ󫻫 ӿѡ.
ߡ ѬԿ ᬫ ѫẫ᡿ (CHR, ORD, VAL, FLOAT, TRUNC)
὿үߴ ӫѡټ ѽѡټ ӫἿ. ᬿ ҡ ޿Ӵߴ ߻᡿ ߻ѵ Ѭ. p ҡ ѫẫ᡿ ԡߴߴ ߽ټ ԿἿ ӫ
߫үѮ . ӬѼ ߻Ѭ ߻᡿ ҡ VAL. ū߬, Ҫ ԼὫ, ޿ ẫ Կ ὿үߴ ߡ ߽ѡ, VAL
߽ټ. ߿߿߬ Ҭ ٺ VAL ӿ
ԫ ߽үڿ :

:=

VAL (, ). Կ B ߻ߴ ԫ ẫٮ Կ, ὿Ѽٮ
ߡ ߽ѡ ( Կ ӫ REAL "ӫ"). Ѭԫ
CARDINAL ԫ Ҭ Ѽѡ,
. ӿ,
VAR c: CARDINAL; b: BYTE; i: INTEGER; ch: CHAR;

BEGIN ch := 'A'; c := 32771; i := INTEGER ( c ); (*1*)

i := VAL ( INTEGER, c ); (*2*) b := BYTE ( ch ); (*3*) b := VAL ( BYTE, ORD(ch) ); (*4*) b := VAL ( BYTE, c ); (*5*) ᬫټ Ѻҽ ӿ ᵿ (1) (2)? (3) (4)?
ᬫ Ѻҽ ӿ ᵿ (5)? , ԫ ᵿ
ѫẫ᡿Ѽ ѡ Ѽѡ ߽ ӿ
߫ԿԿ ѡ. ҡ FLOAT TRUNC ạѡ ὿ᵿ "ի" ӿԿ ѽ ӿԿ Ѯѽ ѽ ӫ. ġ ӫ
ӫἼӫ᡿. Ҭѽ ߫Կ ѡ, ߻ѡ ߫ԿԿ
ӿ᡿ ᡫ ߻᡿Ѽ ҡ ӿѡ ADDRESS. ѻѡ
"ӫԿ" ߫ԿԿ ҬѽѮ ߴ ạ ߿ ԫ ٬.
񡿼 ӫѡ ѻ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿
ѡ ߴ ѡ Կ Ҭ, ԡ
᡿Ѽ "ỿ߿ ӿἿ" (ỿ߿ "Ἷ", ỿ߿ Ѽѡ
Ҭ). ᬿ Ҭ ߴ ߻ѵ ѽڿ (ڿ)
, ѽڿ ӻᵿ Ѭ. ӿ, Ѭ
"ѡ" ӿߴ ߽үڿ Ἷ:
- ߻Ѽ,
- ӿѪ һ,
- ἿѮ,
- Ẽӫ Ѽ Կѡ.
ӿ ӿڿ ѡ, ߽ ԫ
߻Ѽ. ߻ڿ ѡ ӿߴ ߫ټ
: ӿ, ߴ ԫ ߽ѡ .
ᬿ ẫ, ߻Ѽ ѡ ԡ߿ߴ ӿ ѽڿ
: ѡ ԫ ѽ ߻ڿ ѡԫ,
ӿѼ ὿Ѽ 񫻫ѽ , ѡ
߻ڿ. ӿ ԫ "߻ڿ ѡ" "߻ڿ ѡ"
ӿߴ ạټ ҬἿ Ѭԫ:
TYPE ߻Ѽ = ( Խ, , , ); ߻ڿ_ѡ = RECORD

FAM : Ἷ;

GR : 쫼_һ;

SB : ߻Ѽ;

ST : REAL; (* Ẽ Կѡ *)

END;

߻ڿ_ѡ = RECORD

FAM : Ἷ;

GR : 쫼_һ;

SB : ߻Ѽ; __߽ѡ : ( , )

END.

Կ, ԫ Կ Ҭ ڿ Կ, Խ
ԫ ߽񡿼 (pԫ, Ѽ). ١ߴ ѽ
SB ӿ, ߬ҿѼ Ҭ Ѭ ỿ߿ ӿἿ:

TYPE ѡ = RECORD

FAM : Ἷ;

GR : 쫼_һ;

CASE SB : ߻Ѽ OF : __߽ѡ : ( , ) |

Խ, , : ST : REAL

END

END. ѡ ߽ Կ ߻Ѽ ԫ ӿ ѽ ӻᵿ Ѭ ߻, ߻
ѡ. ᬿ pẫ p pҬp ỿ߿ pἿ ᬽߴ 󫺼Կ ppᵿ pԿ󡫮 ߡ. ԫ 󴺿 󫺡 ӫ ߻ѵᵿ ѡ Ҭ ѡ. ġ ߫Ӫ ԫү

TSIZE (Ἷ) + SIZE (GR) + TSIZE (߻Ѽ) Ѽѡү (p pԿ), Ẽ ԫӫ ѽߴ ѡѼ SB. ԫ ( ߽ SB = )

SIZE (__߽ѡ) = 1; ,
󫮡 ߽ ( ߽ SB # ) SIZE(ST)=4. ᬫ Ẽ ἴԿ ѽ ߽ԫ ݽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ "ѡ"? ѡ
ѡ - ߿ 󫺼ٮ, ԫٮ ߴ ѡ ᡡ ѡ. ū߬ TSIZE (߻ڿ_ѡ) > TSIZE
(߻ڿ_ѡ), ߽ԫ ѽ ἴ, ԫү ѡ ᡡ ߻Ѽ ѡ. ߽ ᬫ ѡ Ѯ Ӵ
߻ڿ, ԫ ݽѼѡ ѡ ӻԿӫߴ
߫ ԡѡѼ ѽѡ SB=. ӿ ԫ p , ѽѡ ߽ԫӫ ST ߻ ѡ, p
߽ ӫԫ ߻ߴ, ٮ ӻԿӫߴ ߫ᡴڿ ѡ __߽ѡ. Կ, ԫ ѽڿ , һ󽴯ڿ ӫ ӻᵿ, ѡߴ. ᬿ ߽ pԿ󡫮 ppᵿ
pѽߴ ѽڿ , Կ߬ ߻᡿Ѽ ѡ
p pѡ Ѭ. pp:
TYPE ѡ = RECORD

FAM : Ἷ; GR : 쫼_һ;

CASE : ߻Ѽ OF : __߽ѡ : ( , ) |

Խ, , : ST : REAL

END

END.
VAR V: ѡ. p ԫ ݽѼѡ pѡ V ѽ , ԫ pẼp TSIZE(Ἷ)+SIZE(GR), pԿ pẼp max {SIZE(__߽ѡ), SIZE(ST)}.
pѡ Ѭ pѺ ὿ѡ V.__߽ѡ p ppᵿ pԿ󡫮 Կ ߫ p߽ټ Կ (, ), pѡ V.ST - ppᵿ ԫ Կ ߫
Կ REAL. Կ, ԫ pԿ ppᵿ ߴ "ԫ", ᡡ 󫺼Դ 󫺡ѡ 񫻫ѽ ޿. ὿ pҬp pԡ Կ ߽
pp Ѭpᵿ Կ ѽ (߻Ѽ), ᬪ
ԫ Կ (,Խ,,), p p, ߽ѡ ԫ
񡿼 ԫѽ: pѼѡѼ ߫p᡿ ү ߿߿߬ү pҬp ỿ߿ pἿ. ߼߽ ppѬԡ ppᵿ Կ Ѭpᵿ ѯ ᬫ ѡ - pp ѡ ү ѽ 󫺼! Ѽ ߽ Ѻ߿ ԫ, ѡߴ , ỿ߿ ӿἿ ᡿ p 󫺼 ӻᵿ Ѭԫ pԿ󡫮 ߡ. ԫ ߫ԫ pѡԿpү p Կ pҬp p pԿ󡫮 ppᵿ Ѭԫ. ὿ ڿ Ѯ Ҭ ߼ѡ ӿ ߻ڿ_ѡ ߻ڿ_ѡ ߴ ӡټ ӫἼӫ᡿.
ԫ ߼߽ ỿ߿ ӿἿ ߼ӿ Ӽ ᬫ
᡿ Կ, 󫽴ү ߴ ԫӫ ᡿
Ѭԫ. Ѭԡ-ӿѡԿӫᡡ ٬ 񫻫ѽ 󫺼 ᬫ ᬫᵿ, ѽ ү ӻᵿ
Ѭԫ pԿ󡫮 ߡ, ߡ p޿pѡ . 󫺼 ᡿ ߽᡿ . ᡿ ߽᡿ 󫽴 ᬫ ẽ Ѭԫ
Ѽ ѽѡ ڿ . ᬫ ѽѡ ӫߴ ߡ
ԡѡ " ԡ" - ѡ. ѡ ѽѡ Ӽ ߡ ԡѡ 󬽯ѡ 񼡫 .
- Ѭԫ ѡԡټ Ἷ (A): A = {a/P(A)}, a B
= {b/P(B)}. ߽ P(A) IN P(B) (P(A) ߴ 񼡫 P(B), IN -
ԡѡ 󬽯ѡ), ԫ "" (A*>B, "*>" - ԡѡ ѡ). ԡѡ (*>B) ߴ ߫, - ߫, ӿ ԫ
Ѭ ӿߴ ߽Ѽټ Ἷ P(A)
ӿѡټ P(B)-P(A). ӿ, ԫ Ἷ
߻ԡ Ѭԫ ߫ѡ "ԫ"
, ԫټ ᬫ ߻ԡ , , pp,
. ԫ ߼߽

߻ԡ_ *> ԫ, .
ӿѼ (ԫ)^P() = P(߻ԡ_). ( ߿ "^" ߻ߴ "ѡ "). , ԫٮ ߴ
ᬿ , ߴ Ӵټ ߫. ߡ ѡ ѡԡ ߫ ӫѡ Ѫ߫ ԡѡ
񿡿 ߽᡿, ԫ ѻѡ ߴ
. ӿ,

߻ԡ_

*

|

+------------------+---------------------+

| |

|ԫ |

+-----*-----+ +-----*-----+

| | | |

| | | |

* * * * Һ Ӭ f ԫ

|

|

|

* Ἣ

ѼԿ ѡ ԡѡ ԡ Ѽѡ ߿
ᬫ ᡿ ߫ ߡ 񿡿 ߽᡿
"" Ѭԡ. ӿ,

TYPE ѽ = RECORD

A: ; B: ᮬ;

END; . Ӽ ԫ ӿ ѽ ѡ: *>ѽ (ᮬ
*> ѽ), ᬫ ҿԿ ߻ӿߴ ӿ
ԡѡ . Ѭ, ҿѼٮ ߡ ԡѡ ѡ, ߴ
Ҭӫ Կӫᡡ (߽ѡ) . ӿѼ ٮ ߽
() ᬫ Ҭ ạѡ ٻѡ ӫ ݽѼѡ
ѡ ߫ү ӫ 󬽯ѽ. ӿ, Ѭ "f" (߼. Ѽ ) ѽߴ
Ҭӫ:

TYPE Ҭ f = RECORD

: ߻ԡ_; : ; : f;

END; . ӻᵿ f ߻ԡ ԫ ߻᡿Ѽ ߽ ݽѼѡ ѡ. ӻᵿ f - ߻᡿Ѽ ߽: , , ᬫѵ, ӻᵿ f
߫ ߻᡿Ѽ ߽: ,,. Ѭᵿ "Ҭ_f" Ѭԡ-ӿѡԿӫᡡ ٬ ѡߴ
ԡѡѼ f ѡ, ᡴٮ

| | | Ѭ 1^

+-------------------+ |

| | |

+-------------------+ -+-+

| | |

+-------------------+ |

| | > ٮ ѡ,

+-------------------+ | ߻ᡡٮ

| | | Ѭ 2^

+-------------------+ -+

꽽ᵿ ӫѡ ѡ Ԭ ӫ NEW(M2). ԫ ѡ Ѽѡ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ ѯߴ ѡ ڿ Ѽ
߽, ԫ ԫ ٻѡ ӫ ѽѡ ݽѼѡ
ѡ Ѭ 2^ (.. Ѭ, ԫpٮ Ҭ M2),
ᬫ ѡᵿ 󫽴 ߿Ѽ ѽ ἴ Ѭ 2^. Ѽ һѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ ߻ѵٮ ߻߫ pѡԫ - ҽ ἴԿ. ӿ ѡ ᬫ- ݽѼѡ ѡ, ߻Ѽ ӿ񡫮 ӫἼ, ҽ 񡫮 ἴԿ
὿ᡫ "߬ѿ᡿" ߫ pѡԫ pѡ Ѽ. ӿ, ߽ Ѯ ӫἼ ѡ
߽ѽ ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ ӿѡү , ԫ
ᡡ Ԭ ἴԿ ӫ:

BEGIN NEW(T1);...NEW(T2);...NEW(M1);...

DISPOSE(T1);...DISPOSE(T2);... NEW(M2);...

ӿ Ԭ ӫ NEW(M2) ҽ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ
իߴ ٮ ѡ Ѽ ߽, ẫᡡٮ
"߬ѿ᡿Ѽ" ݽѼѡԫ 1^ T2^, ٻѡټ ӿ Ԭ ӫ
DISPOSE(T2). Ѽ ߽ ӫ ѬԿ󡫮 ὿ᵿ һѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ, ߻Ѯ Ҽ Ԭẫ ӿ ᡿ѡ
Ѽ, ߫󽴯 ѽү ӫѼ. ԫ Կ, ԫ
᡿ᵿѮ ѽѡ " ի" ѡ ἴԿ
ӫἼӫ᡿ ᬿ Ӽ "տ" "", ԡߴڿߴ
߬ ӫ߿ , Ѽ -ԫ߬ Ӽ.
Ѽ ѡ Կ Ӽ ạ ӿү ӿ
᡿ᵿ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ.
᡿ᵿ Ѭԡ ߽ѽԿ ӫ߫ , ӫ ԫ, Ҽ Ҽ ӫѼἿ. ԫ ӫѼ
"ߴ ٽ" "߫", ѽ ԫӫ 񡫮 ԫ
޿, ᬽѮߴ ѬѬԡ Ҭѽ. үڿ ѡ ӫἼ ӿ 󫺡ѡ ᬿ ޿ (Կ
"" ).

VAR T1, T2:;

BEGIN NEW(T1);...T2:=T1;...

DISPOSE(T1); (* T2-"ߴ ٽ" *)

............

NEW(T1);...NEW(T2);...

T1:=T2; (* ߴ "߫" *)

ԫ ӿ ԡ, ԫ "ߴ ٽ" - ԫ Ҭѽ ӿ񡫮
ӫἼ, Ҭڿ ٮ ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ. ū߬
ԫ ѡ ѽѡ ߿Ѽ ᬫ- ӫ
ӿ񡫮 ӫἼ, 2 Ԭ һ "Ҫ" ᡡټ
"޿" ӻᵿ . ū߽ ᬫ ӻᵿ Ѽ ߽ ѻ߬Ѽ. Կ, ԫ "ߴ" ٽ "" ٽ (ѯ ѡ NIL, ߼. p.III) 󽴯ߴ ߫ѡ
ạټ Կ. "߫" - ԫ ᡴٮ ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ,
ԫӫ ӿ񡫮 ӫἼ Ӵ һ. ӿѡ ӿ ߫ӫ ߴ ٮ 1^, ԫٮ Ҭ 1
󿪬 (ᡫ 2). ԫ ߫ ᡿: ӫἼ
Ѽ һ, ߿Ѽ һѡ "" ߫ ᡴټ ѡԫ
ἴԿ.
񿡴 Կ ޿ ԫѽ:
Ҫߴ ߻ѽ . ѡԿӫ ޿ ԫ Ѽ ѽ ӫӬ Խ ӫἼ. , ᬫѵ,
󫿼 󫺼ټ 󽿴 ӫἼ ߫ "Ѻ" ߴѮ ٽ. ġ Կ߬ ӿ ԫ ѽѡ ի
ἴԿ, ԫ Ѽ ߴ ٽ ߻߫ ӿ ѽѡ ߽
὿ ӫ ٻѡ ӫἼ. ߽ ߿Ѽ
"ѡ" ߴѮ ٽ ߴ ѡ ߫. ߻᡿ ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ ᡫ ߫᡿Ѽ / ҡԫѡѼ
߻ѵ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ, ᡡ Կټ ѬἿ - Ѯ󿴼 ӫἿ. ӫ p ٻѡ
߫ѡ . ūү ү
Ѽѡ, ۴ѡ ӫ, Ӽ ,
ݽѼѡ ѡ ӫ, .. Ѭԫ,
߻ڿ ٻѡ Ѯ, ᡡ ӫӫ. ѫի񿼫
󫺡 ԫ ѡ ٺ ӫ - ѡ ӻᵿ Ѭ ӫӡ Կ. ū߽ ѡ ᬫ ӻᵿ ѫի񿼫 Ѻ. ᬿ ẫ, Ѽ ᡿ߴ ѼѡѼ Ԭ ӫἼ,
ԫӫ . 櫫ѡ ӫ ߫᡿
ٺ ӫ, ӫ ҡԫѡ - ᡿Ѽ ԿԿ Ѭ (ԫ RETURN END ѽ ӫ). ӿ:

VAR W1, W2: PROC;

PROCEDURE _1;

VAR A: INTEGER;... BEGIN... W2;...

END _1;

PROCEDURE _2;

VAR A: INTEGER;... BEGIN... W2;...

END _2;

BEGIN... W1:=_1;... W2:=_2;... W1;...

ԫ ѡ Կ Ѭ ӫӡ Կ PROC =
PROCEDURE(): W1 W2 ӫ Ѻ ӫ: _1 _2,
ԫ ߻ߴ Կ PROC. ӻᵿ
(Կᵿ) W1 ӿ ٺ _1 ߫᡿
(߫ӪѮ Ѽѡү ). ӫ ٻѡ _1 ӫߴ Կᵿ Ѭ W2 ߫ѡ ߫᡿
_2. Ѭڿ ѡ Ѽѡ ߿Ѽ Կ
߬ Ѭԫ. ( ԫ ӿ Կᵿ W1 ӿ Կᵿ
W2, Ѽ ߴ Կ󡫼 ߫ԫ Ѽ Ӵ Կ ԡ ߽ѽԿ: ߡ ߿ߴ W2, Ѽ
W1). ū߽ѽ Կᵿ ߿ᵿ 󽫪ѡ ٺ ӫ, ߫ѡ һѡ ԫԿ߬ ἴ
ߡߴ ߻᡿ Ѭ - Ҭ, ӪѮ ү 󽫪ѡ. 쿪 ԫ ѡ ӿѡ ᵿ ߻ѽѡ ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ, ү ѡ ߫ԡ ԿԿ
Ѭԫ W1 W2.

+- +-------------------+ -+

| | Ѽѡ | |

| +-------------------+ > 﫬

| | | | W1 ᡴԫ ӫ- < +-------------------+ -+
| | Ѽѡ | |

| +-------------------+ > 﫬

| | | | W2 ޿ --> +- |-------------------+ -+

Ѭ | | | ԫԿ߬ | | |

ἴԿ | | |

| | > ӫ

߿ᵿ | | | ἴԿ

| ^ | | |

| | | | |

| | | | | v | +-------------------+ -+
ǬԿᵿ
ӿ Կᵿ Ѭ ޿ Ѭ "߬ߴ 󡿺" ѽ, ѽѼү ẼἿ ԫ Ѭ,- ӿ
߿ᵿ ޿ Ѭ "񡿼ߴ ". ߻᡿Ѽ ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ ߡ ӫѼ: Ѭ߿ ѡԿ ߫ᵿ.
Ѭ߿ - ᡿, 󫽴ڿ Ѭ ߫ ἫԿ-. ӿ, Ѽ:

W1-->W1 (Ӵ Ѭ߿) W1-->W2 ...-->W1 (ѡ Ѭ߿).

Ӵ Ѭ߿ ѻѡ ԫӡ (󽫪ѡ) ԿᵿѮ, ѡ - ᡡ (ӿѼ ߽ 񡿬
Ѽ W1-->...-->W1 ӫټ). ߻᡿ Ѭ߿
Ӵү ᡫ ẼἿ ӫ ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ. ߻᡿ Ѭ߿ Կᵿ Ѭԫ, 񡫮 ԫӫ, 󫽴 ѡ ᬫ Ѽ ߫Ӫ᡿ ӫἼ, ԫӫ,
Ѭ߿ Ѽ (߫ѡ ѡ Ѭ߿) ӫԡ
ѡ ѡԿѼ ޿. ѡ ߫ᵿ ᬽߴ ԫ, ԫ ԫԿ߬
ἴԿ Ѽѡ Ẽѡ ߬ 񡫿ѡ Ѭԫ, ѯڿ Ѽ ߽ ẽ ѡ ԡߴڿߴ ạټ ԿԴ ԫ -ᬿ ạ Ѭԫ. ӿѡ
ӿ ү 񡫿ѡ Ѭ: Ѽѡ , ᡡ
(߫ӫᡡ) Կ W1, Ѽѡ , ߫ӫᡡ Կ Ѭ W2. ߫ ӿ Ѭ ߿Ѽ һpѡ ԫԿ߬ ἴ p߼p Կ󡫮 ߽񡯯
߫ᡡү ߫ᵿ (ү "" ޿ Ѭ ԫԿ߬
ἴԿ). 髺ѡ ѡԿ ߫ᵿ ߽ѡ ԫ ߻᡿Ѽ ӿ ӫἼ 񡫿ѡ Ѽѡ ẽ
Ѯ ( 񿼫Կ). ߽ Ҫ ߻᡿ ᬿ
Ѽѡ ߴ ѫիټ ( Ѽ ԫ ߫ߴ), ԫ ӿ ӻᵿ ߽ ѡԿ ߫ᵿ.

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