:
11.09.17

14.08.17

26.06.17

17.06.17

09.06.17
?
17.05.17
-?
04.05.17
:
29.04.17
:
26.04.17

17.04.17

.2017
.......
  12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930   
!!!
!!!
.
.
, .

, , , :

! () . , Word, , , ( pic), , , .., .

-

[pic]

: . 372 .

..

: ..

1999

.
, 3 1882 , , , , , , . . . . . .
;
. , , . : . , .
, ; :
I. .
II. .
III. .
IV. .
V. .
VI. .
VII. : ,
.
VIII. .
IX. .
:
X. :
1- - .
2- - .
3- - .
4- .
5- - .
6- - .
7- - .
8- - .
9- - . -
.
XI. , - :
1- - .
2- - .
3- - .
XII. : .
1- .
2- - .
3- - .
4- - . - .
XIII. : .
1- - .
2- .
3- - .
4- - .
XIV. - : .
1- .
2- - .
3- - .
4- - .
XV. .
, , , , , ,
, , .
- , , .
, .
, , , . .
,
.

( .. " , , ")

.

11 1857 II.
, IV , , .
1857 . .
.
- . , . - . . .
( ) - . , - . . . , . . , ,
, .
. , . .
- , - , .
1857 .

. ,
, . , , . . , . . . , , .
, , . , , . , , . , , , - .
: . .
1882 . III 3 1882 . , . , . , . .
, . 1857 . , . .
.
.
, , . :
;
"" ( )
;
; (,
);
;
. : ,
; ,
.
. , , ( ), ( ).

. . ( ) - , - -, .
- 1725 , , , .
- . ,
III , .
- :
, , , ,
, , . III
1761 . , .

( . " ")


- . , , , , , , , .. , . - - . , , .. - .
, , , , . , , , . - ,
, , , . .
, , , . , . , , , . , .
,
, , , , , . , , , , . , , . . .
I , .

. ,
. . , , - .
, , . , , c - , .. -
II.
, , . . :
, , , , , , ,
.

, .
. ...

. .
, , .
- .
( XVI ) , . , , XVI III (1462-1505). , . . , , - .
. , , , XIII .. , . .
- ,
, -
(625-585 ..). . . . 326 . - - 330 .
III
,
XII .
. , .

957 - .
. 969-972 , .
, 988 .
, . . . , , ....
1469 , II III , 1472 . , .
,
,
.
, . XV , .
III : ,


. . , , autocrator; , , , .
XV - ( -
). , ...

III I
. , III , . , , , .
III 1497 , .
III (1505-1533) , . , , , 1523 . , , , . , , , , . - III , III.
IV (1533-1584) , . . . , , - . , , IV , . - , .
. . ,
, .
21 1613
. , . . ,
, . . . , , , .
(1645-1676) - , (1667),
. . . , ,
I ,
1673 , , , , , , , , , , , . , . .
. , , ; , , - .
, ,
(. 451-453 .), , - , , .
1667 :
,

,
, , , ,
,
... ; , ,
. , . .

I

II
1682 I (1682-
1725). .
, , , .
. .
( , , ). . .
, .
I 22.10.1721 . 1722 (1722-1796) .
I . ,
. ( ) ( ): , ,
; : , ,
. , I . , , .

, , , .
,
, 30- XVIII
, .
1740 ,
1736 , , 1856 , , .
XVIII , , ,
. , . ,
II , , , . , , ( I), , .. 1763 , .
(1764), .
, , 1763-1764 . . .
, I (1796-1801) . 5 1797 .
I , . 10
1799 I .
.
I . 16 1800 .
. I .
I (1801-1825), , . .
I , . , . : , , ( ), , . XIX . I (1825-1855) . - 5 , . (1830-1832) I , , , . 1830 , 1917 . , . 1829
I . 1832 , ...
I . . , , . . , .
II, 1855 I , .. .

,

11 1857 II
(1855-1881). , 1800 I, .
, I, . , .
.
, . , , : , ; ; :
.... , ,
, -
. : ( ) - , - .
.
, - , .
, , , .
( ): , ,
, , ,
-, ,
.

( ):
,
-, .
. , , ;
- , , , .
III 3 1882

1857 . ( 1867 ), , ..
. , ,
( ), , ( ).
: , . : ,
, , . , - : , , , , . , ,
. ,
- - . , , . .

( )
,
, , , , -,
, , , , , ,
, ,
, , . , , , . , . , , , .
, . , , , , : , , , , . , , ,
, , .
1917 . .
, , , , . , . , 1917 . , .
?
, , . ?
, 19-21
1991 . , . . .
22.08.1991 -- . 30 1993 . . .
, . , .
. . , , .

CMBOKA: ME EOOE PEKAMO

muu auu nopeyau oo ynpam u.

anoeo o ypeeo opee

oeoo eoa.

oeca coa eoeea ac o ooe cax c e eoo acoc.
Paccope o npoea cao oe ae peoaae yoee caoro o "co". Oe ec p oe 6 ooa. apep, A..oce aca ooo 60 opeee coa. caoo ocea
"co ea, opaa eo-opaa cpyypa, coepa cee yaa a e e, oe o ee pee, oopx oa ec ooee epaepy ao". B copeeo ococo coape oeac, o "co epoaao ae aoc oaa aeeo epeo ooe ooy epea, oopy p paccaa oca p cee, a pyy oca apepy. Ceoaeo, cc coa no peecoy opeee paeee eoo eee oceoc. Ta o oeco ocoeo
"aeco" epooec, coepa coa ooopa opo aoa cxoacec cop o opeee oa, (ae oeca oe c oco coa, ., oec.)
Co oo paccapa a, a cooyoc coo "ooro poa" - a aoy ccey. Oey ae, eeec (o rpeo) oe coa o cao c eae eo ooc ooy oc oeceo-oec, opay oooc coa coceo oeco co a cooyoc paex cpec, pax oeco , oecoy ec, pa opa aepaa o ocoeo , oepy, 6o, , cp cc.
Hecop a eccopy aoc ye oeco co, ae cpae o oooecoe apaee o e paaec; o oycoo, a e aec, peoaae oeeceo aye yoapaex "paoacecx" cceocx oe, oopx xapaepa a ooaoy ocp c "cye a ooaae ".
Coec e oxo eae oe eca po, o "ppaoa" oe. -a oro, c pe ceoe peco coao ay, oece c oac oeceo pey, a ceoaeo, e oy "epe" ooy poco "e aeac" paoao-pec cceoa.
oop o coax, e e yoy .Kaccpepa, oop ca, o eoe - ooe "coecoe ooe", ceoaeo, c cp eoeeca oo paccapa co py c, c noo oopo yopoa opya x xaoc; , , pe, cycco aya cy "coece op".
ooy Kaccpep oac c exa ac epe exy copeex ey necx o, opac co: "B pecx cya eoe cera opaaec oa cpeca. Ha cee oec a pa c a oa cpeca - a pay e opaae ax oa, o cea ocaec aece ultima atio ac cpxececoo cecoro", Aa oecx o co a aoo Kaccpcp poo ocoo o aepay epa oce epo poo o. cpa, epaeo axoxc coco oeceo- xaoca, cceoe ecx o e eee ayao. Kpoe oo, ae cooe peea cax cpaax pooa ecoa. Ka pao, oeco caa cococy o-a , o oee yopoee epapxec cpoee.
Co coea cee a eaoe, a aepaoe e ca cococy - o eoopo, payeec, cee - papee eoo copa ey coae. o ex op, o ye pac aepaa yxoa yypa oeca, yy co, a ae epye a coy, ee eo cpe x yyp. B cepe o coec "ce" eaoo aepaoo poec, a eco, coee eaoo o ac c po peax ee, coaae eoeo. p o co ypoae eeyae oepa c poc co oec o, o o e pe opae npocop ceoo cey a x ox.
Kacca oeco co oe npecaea cey o6pao : l. Haoao-ocyapcea oeca coa
( ceo a, ep, ; e op co coyc e oo ocyapca, o paoopa opaa oo opa);
2. Apxeyp oec (a, coopye p.-
e o Baroe, Kaca epca ce, ococ Kpe ..);
3. Cyype a oec ee, eopa, ocee copec co;
4. a o, oco6e pea y cx ocyapca, opa oe, opea, ea, a p.;
5. eee a (a x epeo aece e e co, ee ooee ao cpae), poe oo, x ooee cpe pyx a oe copoa ooec oec cayc ocyapca;
6. oeca ooa (aa y, opoo, cpa ..);
7. Pya-poeccyaa coa: e oe oce epop - o pya c coee opeex poeyp, y o aceac apae, yee a ocyapca ooc poeee aoaoo paa;
8. Hao-aaoa coa, aa ce ao aa, oocec oeco peae (oy, aa, peope co, a, oppe ..)
9. -yaa coa e oaeo , opeeee apoe peooe ec, noype eo);
10. peeo-oea oeca coa, pee oe, ocoo ae ao aoao oo: Kooo coo aepae,
ap-ya ap-ooo Pacc, opa Ao pe, y y p-a .; oey coecy po pae opye, ocoeo epoe);
11. a oece co (pee ceo oece ep - o, e, Haoeo p,: eeape epo Be Te, Po y,
Mypoe ee epcoa o y A, C s CA);
12. coo-rpaeca ca. aa repaece a (ce-ooe e, pec, , po ..);
13. oec (ceaa epoo o ocoe oe ocpy, peec oeco pae: oco, oap, "pa'", a ae oy; poe oo, oecyao o oe oe caoe poeceoe coo a oco co);
14. oeca oa c (oe pcpac copoo aoo-o e, paee oee, oee ..);
15. Co eca pee ("opaca oxa",
"noxa epa epoo", "coecoe pe" ..; pa, co, aoae p ae epeo pa o coe);
o epecee, payeec, e cepae acca oecx coo, oy e oe e oe ( ) pacp eec, cpyypy y aoo a co.
Cyecee oca aoee x epax exa ec . Ka o ceoeco cc (coaco
..Moppcy), oeco coe oo paccapa:
1) cay ooee ey eea aoo cce;
2) ceay - ooee ey ao o6eo, op o pecae;
3) paray ooee ey ao ccea e, o epppye coepaec x cooe.
Ocoeoc oeco co a aoo cce coco, acoc, o, o ee e oec ceaec oo ecece aa, xo ee epeo a e peae oe ppo -
"cee" oepa, op, epe; e ee ca c opa ccea, xo e ocaoo oecx (apep, opp ..), oeoax (opea, ea p.), epeoax
(aeca, acea) . Kpoe oo, oeca coe e y oe aoe cce, a ae a a o (aaece co). Ta opao, noeco coe coceo pa c - - pae a epapx aox cce cooa x ex o. oo ce oo poce ooeee oeee. Oyee a, eo coaa y o ycoe ececex oecx ao oee cooy oecoy y. B cop eoeeca pae eea aae cy poce opae co (oe, pya) yopoe oeceo , ae epexo noecoy y
(ao, ocy, eapa pa p.), Te e ee ''apxaece", copeco cce, co poa cooac, oco6eo oe, oa paoaa oe ee oeo pa a coa e oaae ooo oec. B ao ae noaaeo poee o c eee coepa (apep, caca peoc XX .). ooe ccooe aoee ox coo eec c eee pee. Hapep, a CCCP o-paoy ocnpac a yp cpa, a a pyeo epo cpay oce opaoa CCCP, 1941 - 1945 ., a 1961 , (o epoo ocoaa), pe xooo o, 1980-x I990-x oax. o ooe aoy- o oecoy coy oo cy o eocx, peoaax ax ocoeocx oeco yyp oeca. C ao o pe, aeaoo oo6pae oeceo-oeco cya eoxoo poo cceoa oceoo e o oo ceo peecpa oeco co, a e oo coecx yp poe ecyx oo (.e, ya ooee aoaoy ay, epy, y; apxeypo-cyyp coopye, oeco ooe, apaa ..). o e acaec ooe coa opax ocyapc, pax opaa,
o oepao peee ceoeo roocoa 6pa oo a oy ecaypy; ece c e o e apoa oey-o o cera aa p coa oecoo aa "a ea", opeee ax coo ocyapceoc (aa, epa, a).
o, epoo, opaee oo e, coaco oopoy oa ocyecec pa pya, oa oopx, p ac, coye ee o coey ycope, ep co eoo, a a coy. Eceo, "oo" coe pe, c, eepy co ooo 6opoy y, opo oo po cacce acpoe, e ea "eac oy", Ho cey oa epa. po6ea oycpoca oecoro pocpaca c ao co ee eocpeceoe ooee paacoy oey. cceoae ee ooe pax coax coe oeco coe a poe ooo pee oe a eey oooecy, yypooecy pyry apa. Oco6eo epeco poce o eee ooceo coo, oope cyecy e oo coee (ar, apxeypo- cyype a, pae oece ep a "eopa", opa axc eee p.).
Ec oop o cyao ooe acee rocyapceo coe a oeppoay pae "yxa" cpa ee , o o oea oo cy o cee oep cyecyeo cpo, eoc o o eoo ..
B opeeeo oeca coa cpo e a cycca, oope aepy e coo payy, coo ooao cpoe eoea. eo ooy, o xyoece opa oee e co:e aaa (pao a occ co), oo paoaoo - ocp, yoo oec
("peae e peae") ceye - ya oe cxo-ooece oco6eoc eoea. Hapep, eca ooeo ooao ae oya opaa pocpaca c oo coea epax opoax oeo. ocee eoey, o ncxo, ayc y coxpae paoec. B o e pe 6oe oee a ooo pecppyec coae a ca eoopoy yc, a "o" eoey. eo ooy opoe a cyyp (eea a, cay Coo, eocpe6) pepac coeo poa co. oac a coopye, a oea coy. He cyao opoa eoao Epo peca coo "y epae", oa "a po oa opoa eac c a a... B XIII ee opoce oy oea o oceeco a, ep ao oex 6ope c eoaa yo peeceo caoc papyee opx ae". B o pepe aee co a a coaoo oecoo o, a ae eocpa c, oopy oaa co a . Papyee co
- co paooe yoee aapo oeeoo paa, poee yyp, ao, ex opoo .. - o cnocoo 6op co a ac c. Oao oce paec oo ye ocac "coeca a": Kapae,
ac, epca cea, cae coa, a ea aepac cop; o e caoe oocc opaa axc oo. B o o o ycope e "ao coxpaeu" , ooo a pyo, o cao, copee ceo, c , eao-apao ppoo coa.
a opoc ee eoaoo ye.
oypoc peca eoopx pyx ycoo- paecx p oe yee a o6c ocoeoc eoeecoo ocp. K.. y oe apeec ao, eaax ae coa poe. o poe ea ooe a ocyec ceaec:y opaoy ooec ao opa oe cpo o cea
6eccoaeo. Mape cpyyp peoo aaaopa, apep, peoa ocpa epy oepe eoepece cpyyp a pec, py, apa. a y ox pyx cceoaee co epapo ca c "eccoae" e a oeee eoea o.
Bocpe ea eoe ooa ae ao a ooeco ypoe (pac - po, oyo - eo, e - coe ..), xo oo ea 6 ee coa oec. Heoop cceoae oop o oye coea eoo epoo eo a aa oacoc -a opac eoapa - epoo paa pao. Cey e ocp coo opee co pe, cee pa oeca, ypoe opaoa eoea ..
Ec a c ( peeo e acca) peca a e oco a, o x o "copa ec", opay oecoe pocpaco ao oeca. o poecc ye xapaepo ax coo (.e, aoece yp cce), co oepe, cay c paao ceao. Oao cyae c oec coa, payeec, e o cpooc coea eeo, opy aae, apep, e. Opee ee opae aooepoc o a ocoa aa, B.Tepep oea, apep, o "py coo oy cpoe a opao, o6 coca cooee, oopo opeee co ypy aaoo ac pe oopo o cyecoa ycoe paa coee. o cooee e o ocox ecx ocoecax, a o o ao ao yype ocoe cpyyp , a, cea, pao coco occe o oa".
Ocoeo pacope o ooe "" epa. O oo pep: ceac, paccapa ee epe Hope noce cye cpa HATO ( oocoy y oaac cepa, a eo ca ep), ocapy pae aue a -
" .
Moe ocyapc ( opaa), oco6eo opaoae XX ., apya cape epaece paa, o oo oxapaepoa a oy ooe pex noecx "o".
Ec oop o aoo oeco oaope, o ceye oe, o oece co a
"yc" py pyy, yo oo yeo x coe.
Hapep, oece aeca oo pypoe ao-o ao ae, pooc oe aex cyypo-apxeyp acae, c cooae ao-aaox pyao-poeccyax cpec, y, pacapao c ycoo-paeco coo .. Taa ocaoa aopcye epe coae e coecx op eoo, ceoaeo, pepypoa ox eo e e opraa. p o, a , oeca coa oe y oya coaa. Kpoe oo, a opa ocyecc y coa ox cpyyp ae . Be aeee peaaee oeco co - copa "o co aea" a oo oe e, opepy x a e ao opaau e ca pa oaaec, o coa o ceo cpye o, o cpye oe e, a aaa - ayc paoo ooa coepecoa eo. Bao pyoe: pao pacoaa, oa oece co yopec aypoa coae eooecx cey.
oo ac oeco co ca c ac ooe:
"Koa o acy, pye axoc oe oec cpeee poec pae ey e py x ee oe, x peax aax oea"


B o ooe cyecye ea "acooc" pe oecx coo, oycoea aaeo oe oeceo-oeco epapx.
eo ac ye npeey a pao coepa coece ec oaa ea, oope pyrx aypoa. Heo aee pe (opoa, cep epaa), o-o o oeco ee py aa, eocy po . Ec ae oece ep ocaa epec "o" o p o ce e oyc peyeca "ep". Moe pyooe paox oycec ap oy pep. aco oooep e e oco pe o, p ac, opya ce ec coy x, .., a o noaa, oepa aopea.
ec coac a oxoa yopee coo:

1) ea paeoc ooc "o opoa";

2) "o epa" cpoeoe ooee e.
Bo o ee oo poope o a aoo. a o eee yecee a ooa oepa epapx, o p peo cee ocox coecx opepo (peo, peop) ae co,oy pepac o. ooy ye ee, o aa oecoo coa pxoc a pexe epo cop, cae c ecaoc oeceo-oecoo ycpoca. Ha o , "oeco" oeco co a ao-o eo, cpeca ea ocoa onpeeeo ooc paaec po poopoao pocy aepao yxoo yyp
( ye oop o coe a cye eee ey eao aepe) ac o oecex aao . O oe oeco co opacae a poopoao pocoy yee acee ae. Ka eoe ece e coec aa, py opay oe opaa co coe coo, o pya oe eoo oupy cape, ce o peoaae peee ex x coo. coa aepae eoc, oope ae ac poecc cua. Ececeo, eoope a yxo aee, ycya eco py. Ta opao, o6e oeco aoo cce, cooecy cpyypa eoo aepao yyp opeo oece, ye eueo aoe. B o ooe oa e ep ayya. epoe poocoe, apaee oeco c , coec xapaep, oe oo caa o pooco aa - oy, Boco - aa ., Ha eco o coecx op cpay y py.
Ceac apoac peoe ee, oc oe eoo, ocoe oopx - e e co.
Coa pooae cy oe, py.
Bo pe copecx epeoo coa oe e co oece aece coca, pa pye op. Ka pao, e e caouc oe ee, oa poco eec. Coec Co e e oy "accy" co, e copeea
Pocc. Ho a ca a oppoaa (xo oao) a oy e a y o6oc e. B o a e ca caoc - opeea pccca aoa ccea o coco oeca coecx ( ceoaeo, eooecx) opaoa, pe epeo ocyax eca ceye aepae yxoe epec. Ocoeoc eeo epexooo epoa, c o pe oeco co y cex a y: a Kpaco noa oee eocpa, o a ax opy po cocecy pace e oe yae op; apay o Maoe ea epece
Moe coaa, o y o ocaac eopa. Co c oop o o, o oa ocyapcea eoo ee ooaeo e paa, capa - ee e ya. ooy- ae cpae o cx op aooaeo e pa ocypcea coa. Ta, oopo oec (ya ope,poop ), yepea yaa peea, o e oepaa
ocypceo yo, e "pace" co eo CCCP aece ao copeeo Pocc. He epo, opocc apa npcae oo apa ccea, oopo opoe ope Ape
epoaoo cocecye co a epo Pocc (aao
ep Coecoo Coa). Coa a epa o opaae epexo xapaep e noco cc Pocc. Bopaee capo epco coe o e cocoao papaoe oo eoo, oopa oa ocoo 6 peop. oaao, o o eo-ce-pac poopo (epaa ao pooo oa
Pocc) ae pe no pac opo, a o ya opo "opoac" oa a
Kaa. B ao ooe e ceoao aa, o cey c coeco coo cococoa paxy eoor CCCP. ceo eopeeeoc c coo e e aopcye papee eooecoo pca, a a apoa aoo oeco cce ocyecec oa, oa opeypoa c oe coa - co - cye, ocpa coy, oa cyecye epapx coo, aoex ocoy eoo, o a epapx aoece ey eea e oy ee.
oeca coa aoca c peoo a a ooeco, aco "epeeae" x, opaa oece ea peoe oaece. Booe opa poecc. epe ocooe eocpa Pocc aa ea oa ocpac peca a oa pecoro xoa; coeco cop op pec epeeac "op" c ao ape eco ce .. cop eco, o pcoe peooe aco ceaoc, a a ca pec coaa. Cac ae aae aoece oeco eoo peoo pa. B copeeo Pocc, pao a o ce pe, ece ee aco oyc poo coo, a peoe - cya c oecx o. o acaec ooeco co, o ee ao p o cex cpaa. Bo co eeo aepa epa .pepa a o o 6pa:
"oece cce, opae caap, ocyapcee pa pxo yx, oo aa epaco poeoc Krupp, Siemens,
Daimble-Benz ocac . ooy oo epaca poeoc eceoe, o o a coo ycooc ee ocex 150 e, - cocoa epy yepeoc cee"

.

oaaeo, o ppo oa e, o pe a CA- pep peoe pee c pecae eapaca paey c peeo pyee opaoo opopa Microsoft .eco, epoo, ca, o o aepac co popeee ooeee cec oo. Ha o , ae pep coco oaa peee po ecoo coa a pae. Ocoe cnoco6 oye y oec co e ec co peee oo eceeo ocoe, o eo
"ya pa", oece a coaeoe eccoaeoe. B aooaece oca ocyapc peycapaec aaae a ocepee aoax coo. B o e pe o oop ypa "oo" oeco co, ee opoae pax opax, yee yex aeex, acoe yoae CM. oee a ceapo paax ocyapcex ao cy apee x ooeoo opaa coa, a eae ex e aro a acpax ax pao ya yaee ac.
P aopo, cey pa T.poa, ca co eepy eeo o oeco cce. oee oo, x "cyoaa pepeoc o oec coa ec eoxoo peoco opaoa aoaoo ocyapca". paec a cex ax rocyapcex coax oepaec eco ao, pou, oace. Oaoe e ooc a ae CA - oeopee paeca ao, oeex eepa.
ooe pep - a pac copeeoc eco cee cpa ocpax e pa
aa (1848 .):
"Ec oee y e pexe a, oee y e ooy o pa, a ec cpae, a a "

Ta o oce e cyao pa aoao peoao epa copeeo Pocc coaae c ycee oeco po cyeo eepa. C oo copo, o oo oc caoyaee acee, poaeo ao peo, c pyro - cyae pe coo epao ac - ye cococoa eoop eepao ee.
oo pae o, oo caa, o oeca coa ec oo cyecex cocax ace oeco . Bece c e aoap ceec ocoaeoy oec coo a eoeec pay ycaec po aox cce oeco peae. o, co oepe, eae coaeoy ocp ocoeoce oecoo pocca oe a po ycaaac epao-eopaeco cce, a a ce ee po paee paoae ocoae ( o, o
M.Beep aa eao-pauoa o eoc).


P.S. , .

1.

C 1. , 1830

2.

1. , 1813

3. . , 1905

4. .17. , 1893

5. .. . : .

., 1892

6. XVI - XVII ...

,1962

7. .. XVII - XVIII . ( ) // . , 1982

8. //

. : , 1987 (1988)

9. . , 1993
10. - . , 1995
11. .., .. . , 1974
12. .. . ., 1988
13. .. . : , 1990
14. . . : , 1995
15. ..

// . , 1947; . 17.
16. .. ( ) // 1939 N

1(49).
17. ..

. , 1911.
18. , . 1799 ., . . .
19. .. . ,

1993.
20. .. . ., 1989
21. .

// 1993 N1
22. ., . //

, 1990. N 3(113), .59
23. . // 1985 N2
24. 1999-1 :

1. 2

2.

5

3. CMBOKA: ME EOOE PEKAMO 11

4. 18


! () . , Word, , , ( pic), , , ..,
: 23.08.10 | [ + ]   [ - ]  
: 460
: 0
23.08.10
23.08.10
- ? - ?
23.08.10
" " -
23.08.10
23.08.10
: ,
{dnmbottom}
70 000 , , , .